Special Issue 3
A Review on Formulation Design of Self micro emulsifying Drug Delivery System to Improved Solubility
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8025894
Poorly Solubility of orally administered drug is major challenge of pharmaceutical industry as nearly 35-40% of newly launched drugs possess poor aqueous solubility which leads to their poor dissolution and low bioavailability, resulting in high intra & inter subject variability & lack of dose proportionality. Self-micro emulsifying drug delivery technique is the one of the process for improving the solvency of the hydrophobic medication. The medications which are insoluble in water can be formulated in this technique by solubilizing it in the lipid vehicle to absorb through the membrane. The lipid and surfactants are utilized to build the solvency of the drug and improve absorption. This improves the dissolution rate of the drug by expanding its solubility. Oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs can be improved using SEDDS, and appears most promising. Their dispersion in gastro intestinal (GI) fluid after administration forms micro or nano emulsified drug which gets easily absorbed through lymphatic pathways bypassing the hepatic first pass metabolism. SMEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug with a unique ability to form fine oil in water microemulsion upon mild agitation following dilution with aqueous phase. This article gives an overview of SMEDDS as a promising approach to effectively tackle the problem of poorly soluble drugs.
Review On Comparative Oral Bioavailability Studies
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8025913
The registered chemist prepared research dosages according to the randomization schedule in the presence of quality assurance staff, under the guidance of the trained study staff. Investigational products were dispensed and then put into containers with the proper labels. To ensure proper administration of investigational products, an additional label was made available for affixing to each administration form for investigational products. As retention samples, the remaining investigational goods were kept in their original packaging. The doses of the supplied experimental products were transferred to the containers used for dispensing investigational products.
A Brief Study on Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum): A Review
Kundan Kumar; Mo. Arshad Raza; Nitesh Yadav; Jitender Chaurasiya; Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8026005
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is one of the oldest medicinal plants with exceptional medicinal and nutritional profile. Fenugreek is native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of it medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds contain a substantial amount of fiber, phospholipids, glycolipids, oleic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, choline, vitamins A, B1, B2, C, nicotinic acid, niacin, calcium, iron and many other functional elements. Trigonella foenum-graecum was used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of various diseases. In this study after a general discussion of chemical constituents, the biological and pharmacological actions of fenugreek such as Anti-diabetic activity, Hypocholesterolaemic properties, Immunomodulatory activity, Anti-oxidant activity, Anti-cataract activity and Anti- carcinogenic activity were briefly reviewed. Current lifestyle, eating habits, stress, environmental factors and intensive use of synthetic chemicals in food processing and agriculture have radically increased the progression of several human diseases. Globally, researchers have been looking for natural therapeutic substances that can be used to treat or delay the onset of these lifestyle-related disorders. Overall, this review highlights the morphology, adaptability, nutritional constituents, and associated functionality and medicinal significance of Fenugreek.
Undergraduate Medical Students’ Perceptions of Small Group Discussions to Enhance Prescription Auditing Abilities
Dr Anurag Pathak; Dr Hemant Kumar Garg; Dr Shobhit Raj
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8026023
Having undergraduate medical students participate in small group discussions (SGDs) can improve their ability to audit prescriptions, as they are expected to master an overwhelming quantity of material in a short time. Small group discussions are a useful instructional strategy for improving prescription auditing skills in first-year medical students, providing increased levels of involvement and engagement, enhanced capabilities in both analytical thinking and problem-solving, and improved capacity to recognise possible problems or inaccuracies in prescribed drug regimens. Small group discussions provide a learning environment that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving, making them a useful tool for medical students to improve their skills in prescription auditing. Small group discussions are an efficient way for medical students to improve their clinical knowledge and abilities by learning from their classmates and sharing the information and experiences they have gained. The research was carried out with 70 MBBS students in their second year, divided into two groups and conducted over eight weeks. The significance of the difference between the two groups' average scores was determined by statistical analysis. The study found that MBBS students in their second year have the potential to improve their skills in prescription auditing if small group discussions are presented and put into practice. Small group discussions are an efficient method for strengthening prescription auditing skills in MBBS students, providing critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Prescribing and the core curriculum for tomorrow's doctors: British Pharmacology Society curriculum in clinical pharmacology and prescribing for medical students. Small group discussions are an effective teaching-learning methodology for learning the principles of family medicine among 2nd-year MBBS students.
Phytoconstituents and Pharmacological Activities of Medicinal Plants of Rosa Genus: A Review
Shiwani Jaiswal; Shreya Maddheshiya; Neha Srivastava
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8026043
The Rosales includes 9 families and about 6300 species; the monophyly of this order is supported by molecular phylogenetic analyzes and characterized morphologically by a reduction or lack of endosperm and the presence (Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae, and some Ulmaceae) or absence (Cannabaceae, Urticaceae, and Moraceae) of a hypanthium. However, phylogenetic relationships within order are still not well resolved, but the principal families recognized are Rosaceae, Rhamnaceae, Ulmaceae, Cannabaceae, Urticaceae, and Moraceae. This Family is cosmopolitan and most abundant in the Northern hemisphere with showy species such as apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries, almonds, apricots, firethorns, meadowsweets, hawthorns, etc. The genus Rosa L. (Roses) are perennial, dicotyledonous plants belonging to the sub-family Rosoideae.
Ginko biloba: Constituent and Activity in the Treatment of Different Diseases
Adarsh Mishra; Lokesh Kumar; Deepak Gupta; Munna Vishwakarma; Himanshu Sharma; Navneet Kumar Verma
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8077898
Ginkgobiloba is an ancient plant species that is thought to provide a variety of health benefits to living organisms and contains plenty of bioactive components, making it a chemically diversified plant. G. biloba has been shown to have a variety of medicinal and pharmacological properties, including anticancer, antidementia, antidiabetic,antiobesity, antilipidemic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipid peroxidation, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antidepressant, antiaging, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive, and neuroprotective effects and is frequently used to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratorydiseases, such as tardive dyskinesia. So this review is all about to describe the therapeutic action and potency of Ginkgo biloba. A 2012 meta-analysis did not find support for the use of Ginkgo biloba in enhancing cognitive function in healthy adults. EGb has been shown to reduce the oxidative stress of cardiomyocytes in animal models of myocardial injury , atherosclerosis , hypertension by kidney damage , as well as in animals and human subjects with metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular response to Ginkgo biloba is practically irrelevant in normotensive animals, confirming ex vivo studies. A treatment course of Ginkgo biloba 120 or 240 mg daily for 3 months, resulted in a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure in the low-dose group.
Formulation and Evaluation of Hydrogel
Shreya Jaiswal; Dr. Jyoti Rai; Dr. J.Narayan Mishra
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8104470
Hydrogels are a class of materials that have gained widespread attention in recent years due to their unique physical and chemical properties, as well as their potential for use in a variety of applications. A Hydrogel is three dimensional network of cross linked polymers that is capable of swelling in water, resulting in a soft gel –like material that can be used for a variety of purposes. Hydrogels are three-dimnensional polymer networks that can be absorb and retained large amounts of water. They have gained widespread attention due to their unique properties, including high water content, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Hydrogels can be synthesized from a wide range of polymers, including natural and synthetic polymers.
Study on Effect of Coversion of Murrayakoinigii Into Solid Dosage Form
Sana Aftab; Dr. Anima Pandey
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8104482
Murraya koenigii has been widely used as medicine in indigenous system of medicine. It is multifunction uses such as stomachic carminative febrifuge analgesics dysentery skin eruption. Keeping the various important properties of this plant in mind, the present. Study has been planned to formulate the herbal formulation in different solid dosage forms using the leaves and extract of leaves. Then the assessment of the effect of conversion of the formulations was done. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical studies of Murraya koenigii leaves were done. The microscopical character of leaves was perceived as the identification of plants. The physicochemical parameter such as total ash value, water-soluble ash value, acid insoluble ash value, methanol soluble extractive value, water-soluble extractive value, moisture content, foaming index of leaves was studied. The results of pharmacognostical and physiochemical can be also used for the standardization of Murraya koenigii leaves. Extraction has been done by different methods like maceration or decoction. Then the preparation of solid dosage forms was done using crude leaves and extracts. The evaluation of tablets has been done. Further other activity of the formulation has been done.
Review Article of Emulgel
Nishant Chawla; D.K Vishwakarma; Jyoti Nayak
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8124562
An emulgel is a semi-strong detailing that joins the properties of an emulsion and a gel. It comprises of a hydrophilic gel organization, which is shaped by cross-connecting polymers, and an oil stage that is balanced out by surfactants. Emulgels have acquired ubiquity in the drug and corrective businesses because of their capacity to convey both hydrophilic and hydrophobic actives to the skin. They offer benefits like upgraded skin infiltration, delayed discharge, and further developed dependability. This theoretical plans to give a complete outline of the emulgel definition, the job of its parts, and its applications in different fields. It likewise examines the new headways in the advancement of emulgels, like the utilization of normal polymers and novel cross-connecting specialists, to work on their properties and execution. By and large, emulgels are a promising medication conveyance framework and have potential for additional turn of events and optimization, some hostile to contagious emulgel likewise utilized in scalp psoriasis, ecezema, nail infection, skin constant illnesses
A Brief Review on Hypertension
Sidra Zaya; Jyoti Nayak; Dr. Jai Narayan Mishra
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8124780
Hypertension most frequent modifiable risk factor for death and disability, along with stroke, accelerated coronary and systemic atherosclerosis, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, is hypertension. By lowering blood pressure with antihypertensive medications, cardiovascular disease risk factors such as target organ damage and frequency of occurrence are reduced. June 2017, the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for hypertension Diastolic blood pressure of 80 mmHg or higher is considered to be hypertension. In patients with CHD, CHF, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and kidney transplantation, BP should be less than 130/80 mmHg. Reducing dietary sodium intake, losing weight if the patient is overweight, exercising regularly, drinking alcohol in moderation, and consuming more potassium-rich foods were all recommended as lifestyle changes. The first antihypertensive medication should often come from one of the four types listed below: calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs. These drugs have been found to lower cardiovascular events. Renal denervation and baroreflex activation therapy are the two interventional methods used in clinical practise to treat a variety of treatment-resistant hypertensions. Carotid body ablation and AVF implantation are two other interventional techniques, although none of them reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease or death in hypertensive patients.
Microencapsulation: Application and Recent Advances- A Review
Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi; Shiwani Jaiswal; Anand Kishor Srivastava; Sushil Kumar Tiwari; Prashant Singh; Shreya Maddhesiya; Navneet Kumar Verma
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8201865
Microencapsulation is the process of encapsulating one material entirely within another on a very small scale, resulting in capsules ranging in size from less than 1-100. The encapsulation efficiency of the microcapsule is affected by various aspects such as polymer concentration, polymer solubility in solvent, solvent removal rate, organic solvent solubility in water, and so on. There are numerous strategies for achieving microencapsulation. The objective of microencapsulation of substances may be to restrict the core content within capsule walls for a certain period of time. Core materials, on the other hand, can be encapsulated so that the core material is released gradually through the capsule walls, a process called as controlled release or diffusion, or when an external condition activates the capsule walls.
An Updated Review (Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial Pharmacology) on Indigenous King of Bitter (Andrographis Paniculata)
Navneet Kumar Verma; Prashant Singh; Sushil Kumar Tiwari; Shiwani Jaiswal; Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi; Vinay Kumar; Shreya Maddheshiya
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8201880
Andrographis paniculata (King of Bitters), also known as Kalmegh, is a member of the Acanthaceae family. Andrographis paniculata is widely cultivated, and its relevance as a medicinal plant is expanding as evidence of its several therapeutic applications grows. Considering the plant's beneficial properties, it might be recommended as a safe and vital medicinal herb for mankind. This herb is rich in chemical components, including lactones, diterpenoids, diterpene glycosides, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides. It possesses numerous pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, anticancer, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, and hypotensive action. The goal of this study is to conduct a literature review on Andrographis paniculata, specifically papers on therapeutic advantages, chemical features, and pharmacological evaluation. It is widely utilised as a home cure for numerous maladies in the Bangladeshi traditional system of medicine. Steroids, phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids were the active chemicals found in Andrographis paniculata. The presence of active components, andrographolide and neoandrographolide, which are diterpenoids derivatives, contributes to the therapeutic potential of this plant.
Centella Asiatica (Indian Pennywort): A Review
Shiwani Jaiswal; Sushil Kumar Tiwari; Vishal Srivastava; Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi; Shreya Maddhesiya; Prashant Singh; Navneet Kumar Verma
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8337117
Triterpenoids and saponins are significant chemical ingredients that are thought to exert these pharmacological effects. Aside from that, it is used to treat diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, anxiety, and cognitive consequences.’ or Asiatica Gotu kola is sometimes confused with kola nut, which contains no CNS stimulants like caffeine and has no stimulating effect. It was employed in the ayurveda system of medicine for hundreds of years before it was described in the 'Sushruta Samhita,' an old ayurvedic medical treatise. It is also used by the Indonesian and Javanese, and Chinese ancient peoples were aware of it over 2000 years ago. This article discusses Centella asiatica's Phytochemistry, Traditional applications, Pharmacological effects, and Toxicology. Plant-based medication discovery has piqued the interest of academics, particularly those utilised in traditional therapies. Centella asiatica is a traditional Ayurvedic medicine used to treat a range of ailments in India and throughout Asia. The aerial portions and roots are utilised for medical purposes, and its chemical contents have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and wound healing properties.
Tinospora Cordifolia: Medicinal Plant: A Review
Prashant Singh; Sushil Kumar Tiwari; Shiwani Jaiswal; Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi; Shreya Maddhesiya; Navneet Kumar Verma
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8337144
Wild Tinospora cordifolia Guduchi/Amrita, native name; English: Indian Tinospora, also known as Giloya/Gulancha in Hindi, belongs to the Menispermaceae family and is abundant in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and China. The plant is a spreading and climbing shrub with many twisting branches. T. cordifolia is utilised in Ayurvedic medicine and has a variety of therapeutic characteristics. This page summarises the plant's chemical ingredients and pharmacological characteristics. The review will offer future researchers with a scientific basis for its usage in Ayurveda as well as an instructive database on an ethno-pharmacologically valuable medicinal plant.
A Brief Study on Achyranthes Aspera: A Review
Sushil Kumar Tiwari; Shiwani Jaiswal; Vishal Srivastava; Shreya Maddhesiya; Karunakar Prasad Dwivedi; Prashant Singh; Navneet Kumar Verma
DOI : 10.5281/zenodo.8337168
Achyranthes aspera is an important medicinal herb that grows as a weed across Nepal's tropical region. It is a member of the amaranthaceae family. Dattiwan in Nepali, Apamarg in Sanskrit, prickly chaff flower in English, and Naayuruvi in Tamil are all names for this plant. Because of their safety and effectiveness, medicinal plants are used to treat a variety of ailments. Though practically all of its parts are employed in ancient systems of medicine, the seeds, roots, and shoots are the most essential medicinal elements. Carbohydrates, protein, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, lignin, and other chemical components are important. According to the review, a large number of phytochemical compounds have been identified from the plant, which include antiperiodic, diuretic, purgative, laxative, antiasthmatic, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, and other essential therapeutic characteristics. The herb is used as an emenagogue, antiarthritic, antifertility, laxative, ecbolic, abentifacient, and anti-helminthic, aphrodisiac, antiviral, anti-plasmodic, and antihypertensive, anticoagulant, diuretic, and anti-tumor in indigenous medicine. Cough, renal dropsy, fistula, scrofula, skin rash, nasal infection, chronic malaria, impotence, fever, asthma, piles, and snake bites are also treated with it. This herb has astringent, digestive, diuretic, laxative, purgative, and stomachic properties. The plant's juice is used to cure boils, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, rheumatic aches, itches, and skin eruptions. Metholic extraction offers higher yields than alcohol and petroleum extraction.