Study on ureteral duplication with its clinical significance in North Indian Population
Objectives: The aim of present study is to highlight incidence and clinical significance of bilateral variations of ureter in North Indian Population. The ureters are both sided thin tubular structures that connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder, convey urine from the renal pelvis of kidneys to the bladder. The human ureter is roughly 25-30 cm long in adults. The human ureters begin at the ureteropelvic junction of the kidneys, which lie posterior to the renal vein and artery in the hilum. Material and Methods: The present study comprises 44 kidneys (22 adult cadavers) of both sexes (12 males and 10 females) from North Indian origin. During routine abdominal dissection conducted for medical undergraduates at the department of Anatomy, The ureters were carefully dissected; observed and explored the variations of ureters were photographs and recorded. Results: We found unilateral double ureter in right side were (4.5%) and in left side (2.2%) in the cadavers of North Indian population. In this present study we did not found bilateral double ureter in the dissection of all cadavers. Conclusion: Ureteral duplication may potentially have urinary stones, ureterocele, vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy. The urologist and radiologist should be aware about variations in ureter is necessary for surgical management during renal transplantation, urological procedures, diagnosing urological images and preventing accidental injury during surgery

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