Clinical Profile and Outcome of Leptospirosis in Tertiary Care Center Karwar, UK District

Background: Leptospirosis remains a vital health concern in tropical regions, with varying clinical presentations, complications, and outcomes. This study offers a comprehensive insight into leptospirosis diagnosed at the Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 50 patients diagnosed between January 2020 and December 2021 was conducted. Clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters, complications, and outcomes were documented and analyzed.

Results: Predominance was observed among 21-40 year-olds (50%) and males (70%). Major exposure routes included water-related activities (40%), animal contact (30%), and agricultural work (20%). Clinical presentation primarily comprised fever (90%), muscle pain (80%), and jaundice (50%). Laboratory diagnostics revealed an average ELISA titer of 1:800 and a slightly elevated mean WBC count of 11.2 x10^9/L. Renal failure emerged as a significant complication (20%). Patient outcomes depicted 64% recovering without complications, while 2% mortality was recorded. Multivariate analysis identified age above 40, jaundice at presentation, and thrombocytopenia as potent risk factors for severe complications.

Conclusion: Leptospirosis in the Karwar region presents unique demographic and clinical patterns. While the findings echo global trends in many respects, distinct regional characteristics necessitate tailored interventions. Comprehensive awareness, early diagnosis, and targeted treatment strategies are imperative to manage and mitigate the disease's impact effectively.