Clinical Profile and Etiological Factors of Neonatal Jaundice from A Rural Area of Bangladesh
Background: Neonatal jaundice, characterized by the yellowing of a newborn's skin and eyes due to elevated bilirubin levels, is a common condition affecting infants worldwide. Understanding the clinical profile and etiological factors associated with neonatal jaundice is essential for effective management and prevention strategies. Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of newborn hospital admission. The risk factors, characteristics and outcomes related to neonatal jaundice in Bangladesh has have been studied so far. Aim of the study: The study aimed to study the clinical profile and underlying etiological factors leading to neonatal jaundice in this rural Bangladesh. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in the neonatology ward at Khulna Medical College and Hospital, Khulna, Bangladesh. The study was conducted from January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 98 neonates were admitted to our post-natal ward during the specified period. Result: A total of 98 participants were enrolled and analyzed. The gestational age distribution revealed that 88.78% of the study population was aged more than 37 weeks, 8.16% were in the 34-36-week range and 3.06% were in the 30-34-week range. Among the babies, 63% were male, and 37% were female. The distribution of birth weights showed that 3.06% weighed 1000-1500g, 5.10% weighed 1501-2000g, 8.16% weighed 2001-2500g, 58.16% weighed 2501-3000g, and 25.51% weighed more than 3000g. The etiology of neonatal jaundice in the study revealed that 43.88% had physiological jaundice, 24.49% had ABO incompatibility, and 8.16% had Rh incompatibility or idiopathy. Conclusion: This study concludes that physiological jaundice is our hospital's most common cause of neonatal jaundice. This is followed by ABO incompatibility, sepsis, Rh incompatibility and idiopathic cases.